With more and more celebrities all over the world jumping on the bandwagon of the Ice Bucket Challenge, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been put in the spotlight. Though this event in a way had risen the awareness of ALS, there are still so many unsolved problems about it, such as the difficulty of accurate diagnosis and complete treatment. To discuss the hotspots and recent advances in this area, Annals of Translational Medicine has the pleasure to invite Prof. Dongsheng Fan , one of the leading experts on degenerative diseases of the nervous system in China, to unveil the “mystery” of ALS and find out what’s newest about this disease. Prof. Fan will also work on a special issue about ALS as the guest editor of Annals of Translational Medicine subsequently.